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The 1,4-Dioxane Book

The Complete Reference
Chapter 1 – Table of Contents
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Chapter 1       Historical Use of Chlorinated Solvents and Their Stabilizing Compounds
1.1 History of Chlorinated Solvents
1.1.1 Major Applications of Chlorinated Solvents
1.1.1.1 Chlorinated Solvents in Historical or Current Use
1.1.1.2 Cold Cleaning
1.1.1.3 Vapor Degreasing
1.1.1.4 Dry Cleaning
1.1.1.5 Off-Site Solvent Recycling
1.2 Role of Solvent Stabilizers
1.2.1 Types of Solvent Stabilizers and Solvent Breakdown
1.2.2 Consequences of Solvent Breakdown
1.2.2.1 Operator Safety
1.2.2.2 Off-Spec Work
1.2.2.3 Production Line Shutdown
1.2.3 Stability of the Major Solvents
1.2.3.1 Performance Criteria for Solvent Stabilizers in Various Applications
1.2.3.2 Selection of Solvent Stabilizers
1.2.4 Causes of Solvent Breakdown
1.2.4.1 Oxidation
1.2.4.2 Ultraviolet Light Breakdown
1.2.4.3 Thermal Breakdown
1.2.4.4 Acid Breakdown
1.2.4.5 Solvent Deterioration Catalyzed by Metals and Metal Salts
1.2.5 Testing Solvent Stability and Performance
1.2.5.1 Acid Acceptance Value
1.2.5.2 Aluminum Scratch Test
1.2.6 Identifying Solvent Stabilizers Used in Chlorinated Solvents
1.2.6.1 Solvent Stabilizer Chemicals
1.2.6.2 Antioxidants
1.2.6.3 Light Inhibitors
1.2.6.4 Thermal Stabilizers
1.2.6.5 Acid Acceptors
1.2.6.6 Metal Inhibitors
1.2.7 Fate of Stabilizers in Industrial Applications and Solvent Recycling
1.2.7.1 Boiling-Point Differences
1.2.7.2 Vapor Pressure Differences
1.2.7.3 Solubility Differences
1.2.7.4 Vapor Pressure Differences
1.2.7.5 Carbon Adsorption
1.2.7.6 Thermal Stability
1.2.7.7 Replenishing Solvent Stabilizers