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The 1,4-Dioxane Book

The Complete Reference
Chapter 6 – Table of Contents
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Chapter 6       Regulation and Risk Assessment of 1,4-Dioxane
6.1 Drinking Water Regulations for 1,4-Dioxane
6.1.1 Federal
6.1.2 Basis for State Regulations or Guidelines: Colorado, California, Connecticut, and Michigan
6.1.2.1 Colorado’s 1,4-Dioxane Standard
6.1.2.2 California’s Notification Level
6.1.2.3 Connecticut’s Comparison Value for 1,4-Dioxane
6.1.2.4 Michigan’s Proposed Maximum Contaminant Level
6.1.3 Need for Regulation: Occurrence of 1,4-Dioxane in Drinking Water
6.2 Water Quality Regulations: Protection of Ecological Receptors
6.2.1 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System Regulations
6.2.2 Toxicity of 1,4-Dioxane to Aquatic Organisms
6.2.3 Toxicity of 1,4-Dioxane to Aquatic and Terrestrial Organisms
6.2.4 Regulating 1,4-Dioxane Discharges from Groundwater Cleanup Sites
6.2.5 Regulating 1,4-Dioxane in Industrial Wastewater Discharges and Recycled Water
6.2.5.1 Industrial Wastewater Discharge Regulations
6.2.5.2 Recycled Water Regulations
6.3 Air Quality Regulations: Occupational Health and Safety and Ambient Air Quality
6.3.1 Occupational Health and Safety Regulations for 1,4-Dioxane
6.3.2 Emissions Standards and Air Quality Regulations for 1,4-Dioxane
6.4 Regulating 1,4-Dioxane in Food, Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics, and Sundries
6.4.1 Food Regulations
6.4.1.1 1,4-Dioxane in Dietary Supplements
6.4.1.2 1,4-Dioxane in Ice Cream
6.4.1.3 1,4-Dioxane in Gluten-Free Bread
6.4.1.4 1,4-Dioxane in Food-Packaging Materials
6.4.1.5 The Delaney Clause
6.4.2 Regulation of 1,4-Dioxane in Pharmaceutical Products
6.4.3 Regulation of 1,4-Dioxane in Cosmetics and Shampoos
6.4.4 California Proposition 65
6.5 Risk Assessments of 1,4-Dioxane
6.5.1 Overview of Risk-Assessment Process and Data Requirements
6.5.2 Exposure Pathways and Routes
6.5.3 1,4-Dioxane Toxicity Data Used in Risk Assessments
6.5.4 Risk from Dermal Exposure to 1,4-Dioxane
6.5.5 Risk from Inhalation Exposure to 1,4-Dioxane
6.5.5.1 Lactational Transfer Following Occupational Exposure
6.5.5.2 Risk of Inhalation Exposure to 1,4-Dioxane from Showering in Contaminated Water
6.5.6 Risk of 1,4-Dioxane Oral Ingestion in Drinking Water, Food, and Drugs
6.5.7 Relative Risks of Solvent Stabilizers