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The 1,4-Dioxane Book

The Complete Reference
List of Tables
1.1    The Major Chlorinated Solvents: Formulas and Structures
1.2    The Major Chlorinated Solvents: Identification
1.3    Estimated U.S. End-Use Pattern for Trichloroethylene
1.4    Estimated U.S. End-Use Pattern for Perchloroethylene
1.5    Estimated U.S. End-Use Pattern for Methyl Chloroform
1.6    Estimated U.S. End-Use Pattern for Dichloromethane
1.7    NESHAP Temperature Requirements for Freeboard Refrigeration Devices in Vapor Degreasers
1.8    Annual Solvent Waste Generation and Emission Losses in Vapor Degreasers at Air Force Bases in Southeastern States in the Late 1980s
         and Early 1990s
1.9    Typical Solvent Losses in a Major Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing Facility
1.10   Solvent Boiling Temperature for Oil-Laden Solvent
1.11   Solvent Mileage by Machine Type
1.12   Ranks of Chlorinated Solvents by Relative Quantity Recycled in 1981
1.13   Solvent Stability in Harsh Operating Environments
1.14   Purity of Solvents Sold for Industrial Uses
1.15   Pyrolysis Test Results for the Major Chlorinated Solvents
1.16   Generalized Abiotic Hydrolysis Half-Lives of the Major Chlorinated Solvents
1.17   Acidity Generation by Boiling Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene
1.18   Average Metal Corrosion Rates of Chlorinated Solvents
1.19   Metals Corroded by Trichloroethylene and Dichloromethane at More Than 50 Mils Penetration per Year
1.20   European Guidance for Acid Acceptance Values Requiring Solvent Management Action
1.21   Some Examples of General Citations of Stabilizers for the Major Solvents, by Year
1.22   Antioxidant Compounds Used in Chlorinated Solvents (Partial List)
1.23   Acid-Acceptor Compounds Used in Chlorinated Solvents
1.24   Common Metal-Inhibitor Compounds Used in Chlorinated Solvents
1.25   Partitioning of Trichloroethylene Stabilizers from New and Spent Solvent, Robbins Air Force Base
1.26   Partitioning of Perchloroethylene Stabilizers from New and Spent Solvent, Robbins Air Force Base
1.27   Boiling-Point Contrasts for Stabilizers of Methyl Chloroform
1.28   Boiling-Point Contrasts for Stabilizers with Dichloromethane
1.29   Boiling-Point Contrasts for Stabilizers with Trichloroethylene
1.30   Boiling-Point Contrasts for Stabilizers with Perchloroethylene
1.31   Organic Carbon Partition Coefficient Contrasts for Stabilizers with Methyl Chloroform
1.32   Organic Carbon Partition Coefficient Contrasts for Stabilizers with Dichloromethane
1.33   Organic Carbon Partition Coefficient Contrasts for Stabilizers with Trichloroethylene
1.34   Organic Carbon Partition Coefficient Contrasts for Stabilizers with Trichloroethylene

2.1    Synonyms, Translations, and Identification of 1,4-Dioxane
2.2    Identification of 1,4-Dioxane
2.3    Structural Properties of the 1,4-Dioxane Molecule
2.4    Properties of 1,4-Dioxane
2.5    Producers of 1,4-Dioxane, ca. 1985
2.6    Common Impurities of 1,4-Dioxane
2.7    Emissions Sources for 1,4-Dioxane in Industrial Production Operations from Direct Use or Formation of 1,4-Dioxane as a By-Product
2.8    Summary of 1,4-Dioxane Analysis of Ethoxylated Raw Materials as of September 30, 1981
2.9    Partial Results for 1981 1,4-Dioxane Analyses in Single Samples of Personal Care Products
2.10  Detections of 1,4-Dioxane in Taiwanese Surfactants and Soaps, 2005
2.11  Food and Drug Administration Analytical Survey Results for 1,4-Dioxane in U.S. Ethoxylated Raw Materials and Finished Cosmetics
2.12  USEPA 1995 Toxic Release Inventory Data for 1,4-Dioxane from EPA Sector Notebook
2.13  Studies Reporting the Identification of 1,4-Dioxane in Food Products at Unquantified Levels Prior to Japanese Study by Nishimura et al.
         (2004)
2.14  1,4-Dioxane in Japanese Dietary Food Groups
2.15  Emulsifiers in Which 1,4-Dioxane May Form at Trace Levels

3.1    Properties Affecting Volatilization Rates from Dry Soil for Chlorinated Solvents and Selected Stabilizer Compounds
3.2    Calculated Relative Mass Flux Estimates (Chemical Volatilization Rates) of Chlorinated Solvents and Stabilizer Compounds from
         Dry Soil for a 10 L Spill in a 1.5 m2 Area
3.3    Henry’s Law Constants for Stabilizer and Chlorinated Solvent Compounds
3.4    Modeled Volatilization Half-Lives and Volatilization Residence Times for Solvent Stabilizer Compounds in a Model River and a Model Lake
3.5    Calculated and Experimental Atmospheric Half-Lives of Stabilizer Compounds
3.6    Ranges of Measured and Calculated Aqueous Photo-Oxidation Half-Lives for Solvent-Stabilizer Compounds
3.7    Estimated Surface-Water Hydrolysis Half-Lives and Residency Times (Time for >99% Removal by Hydrolysis Acting Alone) for          Chlorinated Solvents and Solvent Stabilizers Prone to Hydrolysis in Water
3.8    Acid Dissociation Constants for Stabilizer Compounds
3.9    Estimated and Frequently Cited Solubilities of Solvent-Stabilizer Compounds and Chlorinated Solvents
3.10  Effective Solubilities of Components in a Waste Mixture of Methyl Chloroform Degreasing Solvent from a 1970s-Era Aerospace Industry
         Degreaser
3.11  Estimated KOC Values for Stabilizer Compounds
3.12  Humic Acid/Air Partition Coefficients at 15 °C
3.13  Humic Acid/Soil-Vapor Partition Coefficients at 98% Relative Humidity
3.14  Conditions Controlling Rates of Biodegradation
3.15  Index of Biodegradability According to BOD5/COD Ratio
3.16  BIOWIN-Predicted Biodegradability of Chlorinated Solvents and Solvent-Stabilizer Compounds
3.17  Summary of Biodegradability Test Results from the Literature in Syracuse Research Corporation’s BIODEG Database
3.18  Summary of Studies of Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane
3.19  Kinetics of 1,4-Dioxane and 1,3-Dioxolane Biodegradation
3.20  Effect of Temperature on 1,4-Dioxane Biodegradation Kinetics in Bioreactor Experiments
3.21  Initial Rates of 1,4-Dioxane, THF, and MTBE Oxidation by Propane-, THF-, and Dextrose-Induced Mycelia of Graphium sp.
3.22  Comparison of Retardation Factors (Rf) Based Upon Field Data, Equations, and Column Data
3.23  Hydraulic Parameters for Modeled Domain
3.24  Regulatory Levels and Transport Properties of Modeled Compounds
3.25  Characteristics of the Sarnia Clay in 1,4-Dioxane Diffusion Study
3.26  Measured Fate and Transport Parameters of Selected Organic Compounds in Clay from Soil Plug Diffusion Tests
3.27  Relative Magnitudes of Estimated Effective Aqueous Diffusion Coefficients and Migration of Chlorinated Solvents and Solvent Stabilizer
         Compounds in Sarnia Clay