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The 1,4-Dioxane Book

The Complete Reference
List of Figures
1.1    History of U.S. production of the major chlorinated solvents
1.2    Configuration of typical offset vapor degreaser
1.3    Vapor pressures of 1,4-dioxane and methyl chloroform.

2.1    Structures of 1,2-dioxane, 1,3-dioxane, and 1,4-dioxane.
2.2    1,4-Dioxane in the chair conformation
2.3    Conceptual representation of a common dioxane production method involving the dehydration and ring closure of ethylene glycol with a
         strong acid catalyst
2.4    Annual U.S. production of methyl chloroform and 1,4-dioxane.
2.5    Estimated releases of 1,4-dioxane from 1988 through 2004
2.6    Estimated transfers and treatment of 1,4-dioxane from 1988 through 2004

3.1    Laboratory photolysis of 1,4-dioxane
3.2    Photo-oxidation pathway for 1,4-dioxane in the presence of NOx.
3.3    Breakthrough curves for a mixture of nitromethane, methyl ethyl ketone, n-butanol, and 1,4-dioxane on granular activated carbon (GAC).
3.4    Plot of vapor pressure vs. aqueous solubility for chlorinated solvents and solvent-stabilizer compounds.
3.5    Light micrograph of Cordyceps sinensis Strain A.
3.6    Rates of 1,4-dioxane degradation and product formation by C. sinensis.
3.7    Proposed pathway for C. sinensis degradation of 1,4-dioxane.
3.8    Scanning electron micrograph of cells of Strain CB1190T.
3.9    Complete biodegradation pathway of 1,4-dioxane by monooxygenase-expressing bacteria.
3.10  BIOCHLOR-modeled transport of chlorinated ethanes and 1,4-dioxane, 10-year release scenario.
3.11  BIOCHLOR-modeled distance along plume centerline at which contaminant concentration exceeds regulatory levels for increasing release
3.12  Distribution of mass of hydrophilic compounds as mass vs. distance from site or time at a location down gradient from the point of release.

4.1   Limitations and complexity of environmental chemical analysis
4.2   The Snap Sampler™.
4.3   Mass spectrum for 1,4-dioxane-d8 and its ion fragments.
4.4   Liquid-liquid extraction separatory funnels, Orange County Water District Laboratory.
4.5   Deterioration of 1,4-dioxane peak with increasing water content.
4.6   Chromatograms of THF, THF-d8, dioxane, dioxane-d8, and internal standard butyl acetate
4.7   Paired comparisons of the results of EPA Methods 8260B and 8270C with 8270–Isotope Dilution from Blasland Bouck and Lee Method
        Comparison Study

5.1   Suggested metabolic pathways of 1,4 dioxane in the rat.

6.1   Comparison of health guidance and regulatory levels of 1,4-dioxane in 1 m3 of air at standard temperature and pressure for inhalation of

7.1    Various removal processes simultaneously applied in the ART In-Well System
7.2    Overview of pervaporation process
7.3    Ten-year predictions of 1,4-dioxane concentration in four hydrogeologic layers under pump-off scenario with 1,4-dioxane half-life of seven
7.4    1,4-Dioxane concentration in plant compartments
7.5    Proposed partial pathway for biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane by strain ENV478
7.6    Biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane and THF by THF-grown strain ENV478 when the compounds were added alone or as a 50:50 mixture
7.7    Encapsulated microorganisms shown inside MicroBead
7.8    Reduction in 1,4-dioxane in duplicate Rhodococcus sp. bioreactor tests
7.9    Reduction in 1,4-dioxane in three samples of drinking water through the use of four different remediation treatments
7.10  Plot of 1,4-dioxane concentration as a function of applied ozone at the City of Industry AOP Pilot Study
7.11  Schematic of HiPOx™ advanced oxidation system
7.12  ISCO field pilot study results
7.13  Effect of KOH ratio on persulfate reactivity
7.14  Destruction of dioxane during oxidation experiments for three different sources of oxidant
7.15  Formation of sonolytic by-products of 1,4-dioxane over time

8.1    Photograph of the Seymour Superfund Site in 1980, before the drums were removed
8.2    July 1999 distribution of 1,4-dioxane (10 ppb contour) relative to total VOCs at Seymour Indiana Superfund Site
8.3    Distribution of 1,4-dioxane relative to VOCs and tetrahydrofuran at the San Jose solvent recycling facility.
8.4    Distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the shallow and deep (Unit E) aquifers, P/GSI site, Ann Arbor, Michigan
8.5    Configuration of extraction trenches and extraction wells proposed for remediating 1,4-dioxane and VOCs at the former American
         Beryllium site
8.6    Distribution of 1,4-dioxane and 1,1-dichloroethylene at the SLAC Former Hazardous Waste Storage Area.
8.7    1,4-Dioxane distribution compared to methyl chloroform plume at the SLAC Former Solvent Underground Storage Tank facility
8.8    1,4-Dioxane concentrations in SLAC GAC influent and effluent.
8.9    Influent 1,4-dioxane concentrations at Water Factory 21.
8.10  Conceptual site model for Air Force Plant 44.
8.11  Groundwater contamination occurrence in the TIAA Superfund Site Project areas.
8.12  Aerial view of Air Force Plant 44 groundwater treatment plant.
8.13  Advanced oxidation unit delivery and placement.

9.1    Field and modeled volume concentration ratios of methyl chloroform (1,1,1-TCA) and 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE).
9.2    Chromatogram of 1965 methyl chloroform

10.1 1,4-Dioxane-derived polymer doughnuts, with potential uses for drug delivery to liver cells, liver toxicity testing, water filtration, and other
        as yet undiscovered applications.