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The 1,4-Dioxane Book

The Complete Reference
Chapter 2 – Table of Contents
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Chapter 2       1,4-Dioxane: Chemistry, Uses, and Occurrence
2.1 Chemistry of 1,4-Dioxane
2.2 History of 1,4-Dioxane Production
2.2.1 1,4-Dioxane Production for Commercial Applications
2.2.2 Impurities and Stabilizers of 1,4-Dioxane
2.3 Direct Uses of 1,4-Dioxane
2.3.1 Cellulose Acetate Membrane Production for Reverse Osmosis and Kidney Dialysis Filters
2.3.2 Liquid Scintillation Cocktails
2.3.3 Tissue Preservative in Histology and Other Laboratory Microscopy Methods
2.3.4 Printing Inks and Paints and Related Uses
2.3.4.1 Inks and Printing Operations
2.3.4.2 Historical Restoration
2.3.4.3 Painting, Coating, and Paint Stripping
2.3.5 Flame Retardant Production
2.3.6 Rubber and Plastics Industry
2.3.7 Aircraft Deicing Fluid and Antifreeze
2.3.8 Adhesives
2.3.9 Polyurethane Materials for Medical Devices
2.3.10 Solvent-Based Cleaning Agents
2.3.11 Ether Supplements in Fuels
2.4 1,4-Dioxane as a By-Product of Manufacturing
2.4.1 Ethoxylated Surfactants
2.4.1.1 Personal Care Products: Detergents, Shampoos, and Sundries
2.4.1.2 Personal Care Products: Cosmetics
2.4.1.3 1,4-Dioxane in Contraceptive Sponges and Spermicidal Lubricants
2.4.1.4 1,4-Dioxane in Polyethylene Glycol
2.4.1.5 1,4-Dioxane in Glyphosphate Herbicides (Accord, Roundup, Rodeo, Vision)
2.4.1.6 1,4-Dioxane in Pesticides
2.4.2 Terephthalate Esters (Polyester) and Resins
2.4.3 1,4-Dioxane as a By-Product of Petroleum Refining and Gasoline Antiknock Agent
2.5 1,4-Dioxane in Food
2.6 1,4-Dioxane Use in the Pharmaceutical Industry
2.7 Detections of 1,4-Dioxane in Ambient Surface Water, Groundwater, and Air
2.8 Estimated Releases of 1,4-Dioxane to the Environment
2.8.1 1,4-Dioxane in Wastewater
2.8.2 1,4-Dioxane in Landfills